Category Archives: REVELATION 6

The initial judgements of the tribulation period, and those sent forth to preach during that time.

REVELATION 6

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SURVEY OF CHAPTERS 6 AND 7

The Lamb now proceeds to unseal the scroll, and so disclose what is written on successive sections of it. The first six seals are broken, and then there is a parenthesis, as we shall see, before the seventh seal is broken. The first four seal-judgements will be introduced by one of the four living creatures, who summon the horses and their riders, for the judgements concern events upon the earth, and come under the jurisdiction of these heavenly representatives of earth’s affairs. Seals five to seven are not put in operation by the living creatures, for they concern matters of a spiritual nature. The seals, trumpets and vials are all grouped in this way, four then three, with a parenthesis of some sort between the sixth and the seventh.

The parenthesis between seals six and seven consists of three things. First, the appointment of 144,000 preachers from amongst Israel, who will go forth to preach the gospel of the kingdom. This is recorded in chapter 7:1-8. Then, second, in 7:9,10, the results of their preaching, as a great multitude stand before the throne and ascribe the salvation they have to God’s power alone. Third, 7:11,12, the angels which stood about the throne give praise to God. They had been appointed as ministers to those who were heirs of salvation, Hebrews 1:14, and now their task is done, and they disclaim any credit for themselves, but give all the glory to God. Clearly, since the white-robed multitude had come out of the great tribulation, verse 14, this second revelation of Christ is now completed, for the vision has taken John to the end of the tribulation period.

STRUCTURE OF CHAPTERS 6 AND 7

(a) 6:1-8 The first four seals broken.
(b) 6:9-17 The fifth and sixth seals broken.
(c) 7:1-8 The 144,000 sealed and sent forth to preach.
(d) 7:9-17 Their converts come out of the Great Tribulation and stand before God.


THE WORDS OF THE BIBLE, THE CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURES, AS FOUND IN THE BOOK OF THE REVELATION CHAPTER 6, VERSES 1 TO 8:

6:1 And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

6:2 And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

6:3 And when He had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see.

6:4 And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.

6:5 And when He had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.

6:6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

6:7 And when He had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see.

6:8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.


(a) 6:1-8 The first four seals broken.

6:1 And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals- now begins the process of judgement which the Lamb has shown Himself competent to carry out, and which He has been authorised to perform.
And I heard, as it were the noise of thunder- the storm of Divine judgement is about to break upon the earth, and these thunder-claps announce its approach.
One of the four beasts saying, Come and see- because the first four judgements affect material things upon the earth, the living creatures who represent the affairs of the physical earth before God are commissioned to instigate the judgements. We are not told which beast is in view in each case, they are simply named first, second, etc. Although when the living creatures are first mentioned in 4:6,7, they are described as first…second…third…fourth, so this is possibly the order here as well.

6:2 And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

It is interesting to notice the correspondence between the prophecy of the Lord Jesus in Matthew 24, and what we have in this chapter. Noticing this will give us help with the passage, for there is very little detail given of the seals, probably because the Lord Jesus had already spoken of the times to which they relate. These are His words:

“And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you. For many shall come in My name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many”, Matthew 24:4,5.

And I saw, and behold a white horse- the first seal being broken, a length of scroll is unrolled which tells of the riding forth of a personage on a white horse. In Zechariah 1:8 we are told of a man riding on a red horse, yet in verse 11 he is described as the angel of the Lord. The prophet is being assured that God has the interests of His people Israel at heart, despite the opposition of their enemies. It is the same in Zechariah 6:1-8, where there are red, black, white and grisled and bay horses which go forth towards the four quarters of the earth, to ensure that God’s interests are furthered in the earth. Now we know from Daniel 8 that evil angels seek to counteract the influence of God’s angels, and it is the same here.
The rider is on a white horse, which speaks of righteousness. This might seem to indicate that he comes in righteousness, until we remember that the apostle Paul described the ministers of Satan coming as false apostles and deceitful workers, pretending to be ministers of righteousness, 2 Corinthians 11:13,14. This personage surely represents that spirit of antichrist the apostle John referred to in 1 John 4:2,3. He is coming to deceive, in order that men’s hearts may be prepared to receive the Antichrist when he comes into public view, and claims universal homage.
And he that sat on him had a bow- he has a bow, but no arrow is mentioned. There is the vague threat represented by the bow, but that threat is not yet put into effect, and men are being lulled into a false sense of security; a tactic often employed by the Devil, but here allowed by God as a judgement upon men.
And a crown was given unto him- in the final analysis men only rule because the Most High allows it, (“For there is no power but of God”, Romans 13:1), and whilst this personage is preparing the way for the rule of Antichrist, nonetheless God is still in control. He is allowing the Devil to over-reach himself, so that he may be finally and utterly destroyed. “The Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will, and setteth over it the basest of men”, Daniel 4:17. Antichrist will certainly come into the category of “basest of men”.
And he went forth conquering, and to conquerhe is allowed to go forth to conquer by peaceful means, and to succeed in doing so. This is the activity of spirit-beings who influence the minds of men so as to prepare the way for the reception of the Antichrist, and their activity takes place during the first phase of his rise to power during the first half of Daniel’s 70thweek. We know this because the Lord Jesus referred to the middle of the seven-year period further on in His prophecy, so it has not yet come when the first seal is broken.

6:3 And when He had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see.
6:4 And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.

The words of the Lord Jesus about this are as follows:

“And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom:” Matthew 24:6,7.

And there went out another horse that was red- the second seal is broken, and a further part of the scroll is unrolled and read. The peaceful conditions that had initially been brought about by the rider on the white horse are now ruined. This no doubt is part of the Devil’s plan, so that Antichrist may assert himself as being the only answer to earth’s troubles. Notice power is given to him, so all is completely under the control of heaven.
And that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword- we now know why the horse is the colour of blood, for much blood will be shed at this time as nations and kingdoms rise against one another in a time of unprecedented carnage. The great sword is being used, not to execute justice, (for God has only given governments the sword to use as a sword of justice, Romans 13:4), but to wage war.

6:5 And when He had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.

And when He had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see- the words of the Lord Jesus about this are:

“and there shall be famines”, Matthew 24:7.

And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand- black is the colour of the skin of those who are starving to death. Jeremiah described the conditions that prevailed during the siege of Jerusalem, and he said, “Our skin was black like an oven because of the terrible famine”, Lamentations 5:10; see also 4:7-10, where mothers were so desperate for food that they cooked their own children, as God had warned they would if they went over to idolatry, Deuteronomy 28:49-57. We shall see in the next verse that the balances are not used to weigh out the meagre food that the poor will be allowed, for the ration is given as a volume, not a weight. The balances are the symbol of commerce, and would indicate that the food supply will be firmly in the hands of the business leaders, and they will control who gets the food. Catherine Bertuo, the Executive Director of UN food distribution, in a speech at the United Nations in September 14th, 1997, said, “Food is power; we use it to control behaviour…we do not apologise”. If this is true now, what will conditions be like when God judges the earth, and allows sin to have full rein?

6:6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny- the wage of a labourer in John’s day was a penny, as we see from Matthew 20:1,2. A measure is a volume of about one and a half pints. This is approximately the flour needed to make a loaf of bread. A poor man will need to work the whole day to earn enough to feed Himself and his family just with bread. All this is the consequence of crucifying the Man who could feed thousands with a few loaves.
And see thou hurt not the oil and the wine- whilst famine conditions prevail for the poor, the rich are safeguarded from hardship. In this way the turmoil and unrest on the earth will be aggravated, for the poor will be desperate for food, yet the rich have luxuries. The chaos of the French Revolution, when the oppressed and starving poor rose up against the aristocracy, will be repeated on a world-wide scale.

6:7 And when He had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see.

The corresponding passage in Matthew 24:7 is:

“and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places. All these are the beginning of sorrows”.

6:8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.

And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him- this pale horse is pale green, (the Greek word gives us the word chlorine, a green gas). This is the colour of gangrenous, rotting flesh. We are given the name of the rider this time, and it is death, and he has a companion, hell, for death and hell always go together for the unbeliever.
And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth- note again that all is under the control of God, for power is given unto him; Satan has not wrested power from God. Either the wrath comes upon a quarter of the earth’s area, or, as is more likely, over a quarter of the earth’s population. Death is allowed to come to those who are the victims of war, (sword); or famine, (hunger); and with death, (as a result of the disease and pestilences that will inevitably break out at that desperate time.  Their death will not be accidental, or slow, but will come to them suddenly and without warning).  But then another horror, for the decimation of the population and the upheavals of those times will result in wild animals roaming about uncontrolled, with the consequent terror that will bring, to say nothing of the awful of death many will suffer as a consequence.

THE WORDS OF THE BIBLE, THE CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURES, AS FOUND IN THE BOOK OF THE REVELATION CHAPTER 6, VERSES 9 TO 17:

6:9 And when He had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held:

6:10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?

6:11 And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled.

6:12 And I beheld when He had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;

6:13 And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.

6:14 And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.

6:15 And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains;

6:16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:

6:17 For the great day of His wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

(b) 6:9-17 The fifth and sixth seals broken.

The second group, consisting of two seals now comes before us. Whereas the first four had to do with natural calamities, the fifth and the sixth have to do with spiritual matters.  The seventh seal opens up the whole of the remaining judgements.

6:9 And when He had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held:

The corresponding words of the Lord Jesus were:

“Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for My name’s sake. And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another”, Matthew 24:9,10.

And when He had opened the fifth seal- the Lamb is the one who superintends this event by Himself. The first four seals involved the intervention of the living creatures, concerned as they are with life on earth. Here the matter is beyond them, having to do with the souls of believers.
I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain- the altar in tabernacle days had a network halfway up, on which the sacrifices were laid and exposed to the fire, and when the process was over, the ashes fell through the grating to the area below. These worthies have suffered in the fires of persecution, and they loved not their lives unto death. Yet this is not the end for them; the Lamb takes note of their situation.
For the word of God, and for the testimony which they held- they have not died as a result of the calamities spoken of under the first four seals. They are martyrs who held fast to the word of God, and maintained a testimony in the face of the opposition of Satan. They did this for the sake of the name of the Lord Jesus, the true Messiah.

6:10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?

And they cried with a loud voice- like Abel’s blood, which called from the ground for vengeance upon Cain, Genesis 4:10, these also cry to be avenged. The Lord Jesus spoke of the persecutions of saints of old time using the illustration of Abel and Zecharias, Matthew 23:34-36. Abel’s blood cried for vengeance, and Zecharias called on the Lord to look upon his death and require it at the hands of his slayers, 2 Chronicles 24:20-22. These are the first and last martyrs of the Old Testament. Yet when Stephen, the first martyr of the New Testament era died, he said, “Lord, lay not this sin to their charge”, Acts 7:60. He had captured the spirit of this current age of grace, and called for mercy for his murderers, just as the Lord Jesus prayed on the cross, “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do”, Luke 23:34.
Saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true- they address God in Old Testament terms as Jehovah, a further indication that these are not church saints. They ascribe holiness to God amidst all the blaspheming of God’s name that is going on around them; they ascribe truth to Him despite all the lies that the supporters of the Antichrist are propagating.
Dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? They are confident that if God judges, it will be to vindicate them and avenge them of their enemies. They have learnt the truth of the Imprecatory Psalms, which call down vengeance upon the enemies of God and His Messiah, and being in an age other than the age of grace, they cry to God to ask for vengeance on those who have killed them. See Psalm 74;9,10; 79:5; 89:46; 94:3,4. The duty of the kinsman in Israel was not only to redeem his brother, but also if necessary to avenge the wrong done to him. See Deuteronomy 19:1-6; Joshua 20:1-6.
This call for vengeance is not appropriate for those of this age killed for their faith, but it will be in the tribulation period. John himself had requested that fire should come from heaven to consume the Samaritans who refused to welcome the Lord Jesus. The Lord rebuked him with the words, “Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For the Son of man is not come to destroy men’s lives, but to save them”, Luke 9:35,36. This shows just one of the marked differences between the present age and the one to come. These martyrs label the men of earth as “those that dwell on the earth”. This does not simply mean their physical location, but also their moral position. They were settling down on the earth, rejecting all thought of heaven, and waiting for the utopia that antichrist was promising them.

6:11 And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellow-servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled.

And white robes were given unto every one of them- they had toiled hard for God in a righteous way, stripping off their garments, so to speak, for earnest labour, so it is appropriate that robes should now be given to them, for their work is over. They had furthered the cause of righteousness in a day when unrighteousness reigned, so the white robe that signifies practical righteous is given to them. They were reckoned righteous by faith, as all believers of every age are, and now each one is personally robed righteously, to honour the character of their testimony for God.
And it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season- their time for reigning with Christ was not yet come, so they must rest after their labours, and do so in the disembodied state. It would only be a little season; in fact not much more than three and a half years.
Until their fellow-servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled- so God’s reply to their call for vengeance is that they should wait for a little season until their brethren would be killed, and then vengeance would be executed. So there are two groups mentioned here. Linking this with the fact that after the mention of pestilences in Matthew 24:7, (which corresponds to the fourth seal), there is the setting up of the abomination of desolation in the temple, we are able to say that the first group of martyrs is connected with the first half of Daniel’s seventieth week, (“the beginning of sorrows”, Matthew 24:8), whereas the second group consists of those who will be killed during the great tribulation proper, the second half of the seven year end-time period.
These are referred to as fellow-servants, for they will labour in the same way “for the word of God and the testimony which they held”. They are brethren, too, for they share the life of their heavenly Father. They are those the Lord Jesus refers to as His brethren in Matthew 25:40. Men’s reaction to these testimony-bearers will show their reaction to Him. To hate them is to hate Him, to feed and clothe them is to do the same to Him.
Notice that their brethren are going to be fulfilled. This either means that their number will be filled up, or their testimony will be completed, or they will be given a sense of fulfilment when their task is done.

6:12 And I beheld when He had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;

The words of the Lord Jesus regarding this were these:

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory”, Matthew 24:29,30.

And I beheld when He had opened the sixth seal- like the other five previews John was given of the future revelation of Christ, this one reaches on to the end. It tells of the coming of the Son of Man to judge the inhabitants of the earth, prior to the setting up of His kingdom.
And, lo, there was a great earthquake- not only does John behold, he wants us to take note also, hence the word “lo”. God said through Haggai the prophet that in the Day of the Lord He would “shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land”, Haggai 2:6.
The sixth seal tells of the reaction of men to the return of Christ to earth, as they face the wrath of the Lamb. This corresponds to Matthew 24:30, where Christ prophesies His return to the earth. By issuing these prophecies He put Himself under test, for a prophet whose predictions did not come to pass was to be stoned to death, such is the seriousness of the offence, see Deuteronomy 18:20-22. If prophets cannot be trusted, the concept of Divine prophecy is undermined, and God rests His reputation on fulfilled prophecy. In Isaiah 41:21-24 He challenges the forces of evil to foretell the future, but if He cannot either the challenge is pointless. As events unfold in the times we are thinking of, the nation of Israel will come to realise He spoke the truth after all. In this way they will be prepared to receive Him, either before He comes or when He does so.
And the sun became black as sackcloth of hair- sackcloth was the garment of mourning, and even the sun laments the wickedness of men that calls forth the wrath of Christ as He comes. Isaiah 50:3 reads, “I clothe the heavens with blackness, and I make sackcloth their covering”. God is able to display in the heavens these warnings to men. Not only does heaven mourn over earth’s sin, but men are called to repent in dust and ashes, and make sackcloth their covering in repentance.
And the moon became as blood- this is quite often the colour of the moon during an eclipse, but this is no eclipse, but the Creator showing His displeasure with the inhabitants of the earth.

6:13 And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.

And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth- some scientists believe that the stars are moving away from the earth at present. Yet imagine their consternation at the coming of Christ when their instruments say that the stars are now moving towards the earth! Just as God confounded the astronomers of Daniel’s day, so He will do so again. Only the Creator can manipulate the stars in this way; but then, He created them and sustains them.
Even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind- fig trees often produce figs in the winter, which, when shaken by strong winds, all fall down at once. They are not proper fruits, but untimely, or unripe. The fig tree is used in Scripture as a figure of mere profession, but the men of earth have not even professed to believe. They produce nothing that will come to harvest. The fig tree is pollinated by the fig-wasp, which lives inside male figs known as caprifigs, which are produced several times a year.

There is such a thing as solar wind, the streams of energy that emanate from the stars. Now it appears that not only are the stars travelling in the opposite way to normal, but so is the solar wind, thus shaking the stars with the very energy they had emitted.

6:14 And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.

And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together- just as when a scroll is rolled up, the writing appears to be distorted and out-of-place, so with the stars. The familiar constellations disappear as the stars alter their positions relative to one another. The night-sky as men know it is departed, and it is the hand of God that has done it. This is a rebuke to those who thought that their lives were directed by the stars. Superstitious people like that will be terrified by a sight such as this.
And every mountain and island were moved out of their places- not only are heavenly objects affected as Christ shakes the heavens, but Haggai had prophesied that the earth would be shaken too. Mighty underground forces are unleashed which cause mountains and islands, (many of which are the tops of mountains anyway), to move out of position, causing widespread disruption and terror.

6:15 And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains;

And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man- the inhabitants of the earth, of whatever class, are moved with fear as these events take place. They have become used to scientists explaining everything, but now they are confounded. The ruling classes, the kings and great men; the business community, the rich men; the military, whether captains or foot-soldiers; slaves and freemen, employed and self-employed, are affected.
Hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains- the political classes have ensured their safety from nuclear attack by building nuclear bunkers, and now they flee to these “dens”, like frightened wild animals. Those less provided for had to make do with natural caves in the rocks.

6:16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:

And said to the mountains and rocks- they will find that their hiding-places are not enough to shield them from the sight of Christ coming, for “every eye shall see Him”, 1:7. They will wish the very places in which they are hiding would crash down upon them, if only they can avoid His wrath.
Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne- “the face of the Lord is against them that do evil”, 1 Peter 3:12, and they find that His countenance is angry.
And from the wrath of the Lamb- this is one of the most startling descriptions of Christ in Scripture. He who bled and died upon the cross in deepest compassion for men, is now angry with them. They have spurned His grace, and insulted God in doing so. This wrath is not spite, but righteous anger against sin and sinners.

6:17 For the great day of His wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

For the great day of His wrath is comeas is the case with all the vision-revelations John is given, the end of the period is alluded to in some way. Here there is reference to the great and notable day of the Lord that Joel spoke of, Joel 2:30,31. God’s words through the prophet were, “And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of the Lord come”. The one who has waited patiently for men to repent and come to Him for salvation, is now sent forth to judge the earth. Man’s day is over, and as Isaiah said twice over, “the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day”, Isaiah 2:11,17.
And who shall be able to stand? Well might the question be asked, for these men have no standing in grace before God, and they are totally unable to stand up under the fierceness of the wrath of God. So in one sense the answer to the question is “None”. But in another sense the answer is “Some”, for the next chapter will tell of those who pass through the time of tribulation, and at the end of it is said of them that they “stood before the throne, and before the Lamb”, 7:9. They do this because they have come to know the salvation He died to obtain.